1. Cụm giới từ với “AT”
• at the age of: Ở độ tuổi
– I learned to drive at the age of 21.
• at the beginning of: lúc đầu
– I joined a gym at the beginning of the year.
• at the bottom of Phía dưới cùng
– There’s a shop at the bottom of this hill.
• at all costs Bất cứ giá nào
– I need to pass this exam at all costs.
• at one’s desk: Chỗ làm việc
– My manager spoke to me at my desk.
• at the door: ở cửa
– There’s somebody at the door.
• at the end: cuối
– I’m going to Madrid at the end of month.
• at fault: Có lỗi
– Who was at fault for the accident?
• at first: Lúc đầu
– At first, I was happy here but now I’m not.
• at first sight: Tình yêu sét đánh
– We met at university and it was love at first sight.
• at a glance: Ngay từ đầu
– I knew at a glance that something was wrong.
• at a guess – At a guess, 50 people were at the party.
• at hand: trong tay
– I always have a pen at hand in case I need to take notes.
• at …km per hour: ở tốc động
– He was fined £150 for driving at 200km per hour.
• at last: Cuối cùng
– At last, our bus has arrived. Thank goodness!
• at the latest: Thời điểm muộn nhất
– Cinderella had to be home by 12 at the latest.
• at least: Ít nhất
– It’s cold but at least it’s not raining.
• at length: Cực kỳ chi tiết, khoảng thời gian dài
– My dad could talk at length about Irish history.
• at midday/midnight: nửa đêm
– I went home at midnight as I was tired.
• at the moment: Ngay lúc này
– I’m living in Ireland at the moment.
• at night: Buổi tối
– I can’t study during the day. I prefer to study at night.
• at once: từng lần một
– Everybody started talking at once.
• at present: Ngay lúc này
– At present, I’m working for a multinational.
• at random: Ngẫu nhiên
– Numbers are selected at random in a lottery.
• at any rate: Bất cứ tỉ lệ, trường hợp
– At any rate, I’m confident I’ll find a job soon.
• at the same time: Cùng lúc
– I had fun and improved my English at the same time.
• at school: Ở trường
– Things were very different when I was at school.
• at short notice: Phút chót
– She cancelled the meeting at short notice.
• at the table: Trên bàn
– The whole family sat at the table for dinner.
• at times: Có những lúc
– At times, I feel like giving up.
• at the top of: Đứng đầu
– Barcelona are at the top of the Spanish league.
• at university: Tại trường đại học
– I studied economics at university.
• at the weekend: Cuối tuần
– I love going out with friends at the weekend.
• at work: Đang làm việc
– I’m at work right now so I’ll call you back later.
• At a loss: Lỗ
– We sold those old computers at a loss.
• At a moment’s notice: Ngay lập tức
– The soldiers were ready at a moment’s notice.
• At a stretch: Một khoảng thời gian liên tục
– He worked for fifteen hours at a stretch.
• At all costs: bất cứ giá nào
– We have to retain the majority at all costs.
• At cost: Giá gốc
– I will sell you the apples at cost.
• At first: Lúc đầu
– If at first you don’t succeed, do it like your father told you
• At full tilt: Tốc độ tối đa
– Don’t go racing around corners at full tilt or you’ll hit someone.
2. Cụm giới từ với “BY”
• by accident: Vô tình
– I was so sleepy that I put salt in my coffee by accident.
• by all accounts: Theo những gì được biết
– By all accounts, Seville is a beautiful city.
• by appointment: Việc xảy ra vào dịp đặc biệt
– The museum is open at weekends by appointment.
• by the arm/hand: Cầm tay
– He took me by the hand as we walked along the beach.
• by auction: Đấu giá
– We’re selling our antique furniture by auction.
• by birth: Gốc – I grew up in England but I’m Irish by birth.
• by bus/train/plane, etc.
– Are you going to go there by bus or by train?
• by chance: Vô tình
– I found some money in my jacket pocket by chance.
• by cheque: bằng Séc
– l’ue never paid for anything by cheque.
• by day/night: lúc tối
– The Eiffel Tower looks spectacular by night.
• by design: Định hướng
– I became a teacher more by accident than by design.
• by the drozen: Một tá
– I always buy eggs by the drozen. A drozen means 12.
• by far: đến thời điểm này
– ‘Before Sunset’ is by far my favourite film
• by hand: tự làm
– My granduncle built this house by hand.
• by heart: học thuộc lòng
– At school we had to learn poems by heart.
• by invitation: Được mời
– Membership to the club is by invitation only.
• by land/sea/air
– I get sick whenever I travel by sea.
• by law: Bởi luật pháp – Dog owners must have a licence for the pets by law.
• by luck: Gặp may – They played badly but won the match by luck.
• by means of: Bởi
– I was able to afford the car by means of a bank loan.
• by mistake: Không may – I chose the wrong road by mistake. Now we’re lost.
• by nature: Tự nhiên
– German people tend to be quite organised bu nature.
• by no means: Không có lẽ gì
– It’s by no means certain that the economy will improve.
• by now: Đến lúc này
– If you don’t know me by now, you’ll never know me.
• by oneself – I don’t mind spending time by myself.
• by phone – Get in touch with me by phone if you need any help.
• by post: Gửi bưu điện
– Do you think it’s safe to send cash by post.
• by request:yêu cầu – Guided tours of the gallery are available by request.
• by rights: Đúng luật
– By rights, it’s my turn to play but you can go ahead.
• by one’s side: Bên cạnh ai
– He was by her side whenever she needed him.
• by surprise: Ngạc nhiên
– The unusual question took John by surprise.
• by the time: Đến thời điểm nào
– I’ll have gone to bed by the time you get home.
• by the way: Nhân tiện
– By the way, I won’t be able to come to class next week.
• by word of mouth: lời nói
– The best form of advertising is by word of mouth.
• By a whisker: Một khoảng cách cực ky ngắn
– I’m lucky to be alive. The bus missed me by a whisker.
• By accident: Vô tình
– Sorry. I knocked over the vase by accident.
• By and large: nói chung, tổng thể
– It was, by and large, an unexceptional presentation.
• By any chance: Bằng cách nào đó
– Are you by any chance looking for a new staff member?
• By default: việc xảy ra bởi không có hành động ngăn lại
– If we don’t do something, they’ll win by default.
3. Cụm giới từ “FOR”
• for ages: Thời gian rất lâu
– I haven’t seen you for ages. Where have you been?
• for breakfast/lunch/dinner: Cho bữa ăn
– What did you have for breakfast today?
• for certain/sure: chắc chắn
– I know for certain that I won’t be here next year.
• for a change: Thay đổi
– We always go there. Let’s go to another bar for a change.
• for ever (or forever) – Nobody can live for ever, unfortunately.
• for example: ví dụ – You could, for example, walk instead of taking the car.
• for fear of: Sợ
– I didn’t tell him for fear of upsetting him.
• for fun – I don’t take sport seriously, I do it just for fun.
• for good: mãi mãi
– I’m not coming back. This time I’m leaving for good.
• for hire: có sẵn cho thuê
– There are cars and vans for hire at the airport.
• for instance: Ví dụ
– You should study another language, for instance, Italian.
• for luck: may mắn – I always wear this bracelet for luck.
• for life: cả đời – Working for the government is a job for life.
• for love: vì tình yêu – I definitely don’t do it for the money, I do it for love.
• for a moment: một lúc nào đó
– For a moment, I thought she was being serious.
• for the moment: lúc này
– I’m happy living in London for the moment.
• for nothing: Không vì gì cả
– I can’t believe it’s closed. I came all this way for nothing.
• for once: Ít nhất một lần
– Late again! For once, can you try to arrive on time?
• for the rest of: Thời gian còn lại
– I could live here for the rest of my life.
• for safekeeping: giữ an toàn
– At the gym, I put my stuff in a locker for safekeeping.
• for somebody’s sake: vì lợi ích của ai
– Maria was upset so I had to be calm for her sake.
• for the sake of: vì lợi ích
– They stayed together for the sake of their children.
• for sale: Giảm giá
– There’s a lovely house for sale at the end of this street.
• for short: gọi tắt – My name is John but my family call me ) for short.
• for the time being: Ngay lúc này – I’m happy in my current job for the time being.
• for a visit/holiday – I’m in the mood for a holiday. Let’s go somewhere.
• for a walk: đi bộ
– I needed to calm down so I went for a long walk.
• for a while: một lúc
– I haven’t spoken to him for a while.
4. Cụm giới từ với “In”
• in a (good/bad) mood: lúc cảm giác vui, buồn
– I’m not in a good mood today so leave me alone, please.
• in a hurry: Vội
– I can’t talk right now as I’m in a hurry.
• in a mess: Hỗn độn
– The whole house is in a mess. We need to tidy it today.
• in a way: Bằng cách nào đó
– Can money buy happiness? In a way, I think so.
• in action: Thực tế
– I went to Camp Nou to see Lionel Messi in action last week.
• in addition (to): Để làm gì
– In addition to feeling tired, I felt a bit sick.
• in aduance (of): trước
– It’s a busy restaurant so we should book a table in advance.
• in agreement with: Thỏa thuận với ai
– I’m in agreement with many of the views of my classmates.
• in any case: Dù sao
– I don’t want to go and in any case, I wasn’t invited.
• in brief: Tổng thể
– The interview was, in brief, a complete disaster.
• in case (+ clause): Trong trường hợp
– Take an umbrella in case it rains.
• in case of (+ noun):
– In case of emergency, dial 911.
• in cash: tiền mặt
– I’d prefer to pay in cash, if you don’t mind.
• in charge of: có trách nhiệm, đứng đầu
– Our president is too incompetent to be in charge of the economy.
• in common (with): Điểm chung
– I have a lot of in common with my best friend.
• in comparison with: So sánh với
– The weather in Scotland is awful in comparison with Italy.
• in conclusion: Tổng kết – In conclusion, I believe we should do more to help the poor.
• in confidence: bí mật, riêng tư
– I told you that story in confidence but you told everyone.
• in control (of): kiểm soát
– He’s not in control of his emotions so he gets upset very easily.
• in danger (of): trong vòng nguy hiểm
– If you don’t change your diet, you’re in danger of being very ill.
• in debt: nợ nần
– He’s in debt, which means he owes money to the bank.
• in detail: chi tiết
– She described what had happened to her in detail.
• in difficulty: Gặp khó khăn
– If you’re in difficulty, I’m happy to give you a helping hand.
• in disguise: cải trang để tránh gì đó
– Celebrities often go out in disguise in order to avoid paparazzi.
• in doubt: Nghi ngờ
– The festival is in doubt on account of the huge storm.
• in exchange for: làm gì để đổi lại gì
– I washed my father’s car in exchange for some pocket money.
• in fact – I don’t feel tired at all. In fact, I’m full of energy.
• in fashion – Beards were in fashion last year but they’re out of fashion now.
• in front of – There’s a bus stop right in front of my house, which is handy.
• in future – I’m not angry but in future, text me if you’re going to be late.
• in general: Tổng thể
– In general, I think that people in Ireland are very friendly.
• in good/bad condition – My car is in really bad condition so I need to get it repaired.
• in ink/pencil – It’s better to write in pencil so that you can correct it later.
• in love (with) – I fell in love with her the moment I met her.
• in moderation: Trong vòng kiểm soát
– I eat meat in moderation as I think too much is bad for you.
• in no time: rất nhanh
– Study every day and your level of English will improve in no time.
• in one’s free time – I enjoy hanging out with friends in my free time.
• in other words: Giải thích chi tiết thêm
– I haven’t got a penny to my name this month. In other words, I’m broke.
• in pain – The vet decided to put down the animal as it was in a lot of pain.
• in particular: thích gì hơn
– I enjoyed my trip to London; in particular, I loved Camden Town.
• in person: gặp mặt trực tiếp
– l’ue spoken to him on facebook but never met him in person.
• in practice/theory: Theo giả thuyết
– In theory, summers should be warm and sunny but it never happens here.
• in prison/jail – There’s not a single corrupt politician in prison, which is simply wrong.
• in private/public – I have to speak to you in private. Do you have a minute?
• in return: Chiều trả lại – I teach her English and she teaches me Spanish in return.
• in somebody’s interest – It’s in your best interest to do a bit of exercise every day.
• in somebody’s opinion – In my opinion, Florence is the most beautiful city in the world.
• in season – I try to buy vegetables and fruits that are in season.
• in secret – I told you that story in secret and you told half of the world! • in self-defence – The defendant claimed he had been acting in self-defence. • in some respects – In some respects, I had been expecting Brexit but I’m still surprised.
• in stock – I wanted to buy the jacket but the shop didn’t have my size in stock.
• in summer/winter – There’s nothing better than going to the beach in summer.
• in tears – He insulted her appearance and she left the party in tears.
• in the air – There was a feeling of tension in the air when he entered the room.
• in the beginning – It was hard in the beginning but I soon adapted to life in Ireland.
• in the dark- She hasn’t told me anything. I’m in the dark about her decision.
• in the end – In the end, family and friends are the most important people in life.
• in the habit of – I’m in the habit of waking up early and going for a run. • in the meantime – The film starts at 19:00. In the meantime, let’s have some dinner.
• in the mood for – I’m not in the mood for English class now. I’d prefer to watch a movie.
• in the mountains – Do you like spending time in the mountains or do you prefer the sea?
• in the news – Silly celebrities are often in the news in my country. It’s a shame.
• in the nude – Stop walking around the flat in the nude – the neighbours can see you.
• in time – I left my house early and arrived in time to have a coffee before work.
• in touch – I’m not in touch with him any longer. We lost contact a few years ago.
• in town – I’ll give you a call if I’m in town next week. It would be nice to catch up.
• in two/half – I broke the chocolate bar in two and gave one half to my nephew.
• in vain – I tried to convince her to go out but all of my efforts were in vain.
• In a hurry – I can’t stop now. I’m in a hurry.
• In a lather – She was in a lather because she couldn’t find her passport.
• In a minute – Clean the kitchen, your grandma’s coming in a minute.
• In a nutshell – He had a lot to say, but his answer, in a nutshell, was no.
• In a row – After making losses four years in a row, the manager knew she had to sack someone,
• In a row – Bottles of every type of alcohol they had were lined up in a row behind the bar.
• In absentia – The defendant was convicted in absentia after fleeing during the trial.
• In action – Seeing a steam engine in action is increasingly rare.
• In action – He was wounded in action in his second tour.
• In advance – The money was paid in advance.
• In agreement – I am in agreement with you as far as the basic design, but not with the colour scheme you suggest.
• In agreement – The results are in agreement with the calculated figures. • In all honesty – I didn’t get a girlfriend, though in all honesty, I’m still undecided whether I really want to have one.
• In order – Place the cards in order by color, then by number.
5. Cụm giới từ với “ON”
• Act on st (v): hành động theo cái gì
– There have been concerns as to why the Board didn’t act on a recommended pay raise.
• Based on st (adj): dựa trên cái gì
– The movie is based on the true story of a England gangster.
• Call on sb to do st (v): kêu gọi ai làm gì
– They’re calling on all men and boys over the age of 14 to join the army.
• Comment on st (v): bình luận về cái gì
– He always comments on my clothes
• Concentrate on st (v): tập trung vào việc gì
– She gave up her job to concentrate on writing a novel.
• Congratulate sb on st (v): chúc mừng ai đó trong dịp gì
– My friends congratulated me on passing the test
• Consult sb on st (v): tham khảo ai đó về vấn đề gì
• Count on st (v): lên kế hoạch dựa trên điều gì đó
– Sorry I’m late, I didn’t count on being held up in the traffic.
• Decide on st (v): quyết định về cái gì
– I’ve decided on blue for the bathroom.
• Depend on sb/st (v): lệ thuộc vào ai /vào cái gì
– The country depends heavily on foreign aid
• Get on a train/a bus/ a plane (v): lên tàu hoả/ xe bus/ máy bay
• Intent on st (adj): tập trung tư tưởng vào cái gì
• Keen on st (adj): mê cái gì
– I’m very keen on sports.
• Set on fire (v): phát hoả, đốt cháy
– The new album of Madonna sets the world on fire.
• Smile on sth/sb (v): cư xử tích cực với ai
– The government began to smile on small businesses when it realized that they were the key to economic growth.